Karnataka: Uduppi, some old photos

Title: "Boys' boarding school in Udapi."
Creator: unknown
Date: 01.01.1858-31.12.1890

Title: "In front of the Krishna temple in Udipi."
Creator: Müller, Friedrich China (Mr)
Date: 02.09.1913-01.06.1914
Title: "C.62. General view of Little Chandrana - the Jain Temple, Mudabiri, S. Kanara."
Creator: unknown studio
Date: 01.01.1881-31.12.1920

Reference: BMA C-30.91.015
Title: "Puttur. 1928."
Creator: Ritter, Theodor Samuel (Mr)
Date: 01.01.1928-31.12.1928

As per one theory, Puttur got its name after pearl "Mutthu" in Kannada and town of pearl "Mutthur" slowly renamed itself to Puttur.The famous believed myth is Centuries ago,due to draught priests were performing rituals with rice as prasad in the Holy pond of Mahalingeshwara temple,suddenly the water started coming from all the corners to turn those rice into pearl. Other theory, is Puttur derived its name from "Puttha" in Tulu, meaning snake nests (ant hills/ mounds inhabited by s
Sri Mahalingeshwara Temple: This is an ancient temple of said to be built in 11-12th Century, Lord Shiva (popularly known as Puttur Mahalingeshwara) is main deity of this temple. You will find the photo/idle of this deity in most of the houses/shops in the entire puttur taluk as the deity is believed to be the protector of Puttur Taluk. In the premises of this temple we find unique pond on the western side. It is said that in olden days pearls were found to be growing in the pond. In the local dialect muttu means pearls, which brought the name Mutthur to this place later called as Puttur. During the month of April the car festival is celebrated for 10 days with much gaiety and fervor. The town is at its colorful best with the dazzling, light and marvelous display of fire crackers. More than a lakh people visit Puttur during the festival. Another special about the famous Mahalingeshwara temple of Puttur is that elephants can never enter the temple premises. The story goes that once a thief entered the temple and stole the main Idol and when he could not escape he threw the idol into the pond in front of the temple. It went so deep that an Elephant was brought to lift it up. A rope was tied to the idol and dragged by the elephant that Lord Mahalingeshwara became angry with the elephant for dragging him hard and he cursed the elephant that no elephant shall enter the premises of his temple, if entered would fall dead.
Kalle was called as Kallega by the local people. This is the oldest mosque of town.

Bendru Theertha (
Hot Spring): About 15 km from Puttur there is a natural hot water spring (in Tulu language known as Bendru Theertha). It is believed by the local people that the water is said to be more auspicious and a dip in the lake drives away all skin diseases like eczema, allergic rashes and many more ailments. It is situated in a scenic spot by the side of river Seerehole which flows west ward and merges with Arabian Sea. It is the only hot water spring in South India.

library of his literary works and an attractive museum is established and is open to the public. A swimming pool was built to teach the children swimming. Summer camps are held here for the children of town and surrounding villages to bring out the hidden talents of children in the field of arts and cultural activities.

'Shri Gopalakrishna temple' situated in Shibara. Which is built around 300 years ago.

Mai De Deus
Church: It is one of the ancient church built in 1830 by the Roman Catholic missionaries from Goa in Gothic style. This holy church is renovated with elegant architectural beauty.

Maril church: A church built in 1899..


Kannur- Land of Looms, A historical approach

Kannur- Land of Looms, A  historical approach

Woven  cloth

The tradition of making woven cloth dates back to Rig Vedic period. Authentic accounts about the
inhabitants of the Indus Valley Civilization used cotton for clothing as early as the 5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC.

According to The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition:

"Cotton has been spun, woven, and dyed since prehistoric times. It clothed the people of ancient India, Egypt, and China. Hundreds of years before the Christian era cotton textiles were woven in India with matchless skill, and their use spread to the Mediterranean countries. In the 1st cent. Arab traders brought fine Muslin and Calico to Italy and Spain. The Moors introduced the cultivation of cotton into Spain in the 9th cent. Fustians and dimities were woven there and in the 14th cent. in Venice and Milan, at first with a linen warp. Little cotton cloth was imported to England before the 15th cent., although small amounts were obtained chiefly for candlewicks. By the 17th cent. theEast India Company was bringing rare fabrics from India. Native Americans skillfully spun and wove cotton into fine garments and dyed tapestries. Cotton fabrics found inPeruvian tombs are said to belong to a pre-Inca culture. In color and texture the ancient Peruvian and Mexican textiles resemble those found in Egyptian tombs."

South  India

Basel Mission brought about a major breakthrough in Handloom sector at the time of British rule in 1844. Basel Mission first setup the Handloom weaving factories in Mangalore in 1844 and subsequently in Cannanore and Calicut in 1852. It brought the handlooms popular in Manchester, UK and adapted to Indian conditions to run the Handloom weaving factories in modern line.With the success of these weaving units, some of the wealthy families in the areas ventured into Handloom weaving factories, mainly focusing in the manufacture of dress materials and casements. Handloom industries suffered a setback after the Second World War and most of the factories were closed.

Title: "A difficult load with machinery on the beach in Cannanore."
Creator: unknown
Date: NA( Probably before 1890)
Please note the heavy machinery shipped from Europe and the method to embark ship to the boat and to land of Kannur. ...It may be a historical moment. The place is not known but we believe it is in present Ayikkara beach popularly known as Mappila Bay at Kannur city, just in front of Arakkal palace. In background, we assume, the fort of saint Angelo.
note the costume of Men and how they enjoy..

Kannur a brief History

The Basel Mission pioneered the modernised handloom and dyeing industry in Kannur,as a centre of the handloom industry.
 The missionaries, with their hard work, maintained the quality of cloth and introduced new designs such as ‘khaki.’ Before their time, weavers had worked on pit looms (looms constructed over a pit).
The missionaries introduced the loom with a wooden frame erected on four wooden stands with a comfortable seat. A weaver could pedal the loom with feet. Also, the shuttle was thrown by the weaver beating with his hand instead of placing it through the yarns.
The innovation enhanced the production and the labourer could earn more. Though power looms were popular in Europe then, it did not exist in Malabar as there was no electricity.

Shift to factory

Title: "Transporting one of the three boilers for our weaving factory. It weighs something over 10 tons, and was pulled by 12 oxen and about 30 people. Transporting the boiler aroused a lot of interest in Cannanore. Many curious people came to see what was going on. The three boilers now stand peacefully in line in the boiler-house and will soon be making steam to drive the new machines."
Creator: unknown

The weaving centres opened by the missionaries had some sort of monopoly over their new commodity, khaki, in those days. Another contribution by the missionaries was the shifting of production from the cottage industry to the factory system. The factory system encouraged division of labour.
 It was this transfer of technology and production system that made Kannur emerge as one of the famous handloom production centres in Malabar. Wilhem Peter Schoenthal, missionary, opened a factory with an electrically operated spinning machine made in Vorington, England in 1896. This machine helped him produce a fine woven satin cotton. This was the background of the introduction of the finest satin cotton in Kannur, which later turned to be a legacy of the textile industry here.
Local touch                                                     
The missionaries and the entrepreneurs escaped from India during the pre-World War I period and the British took over the factories. After 1947, private entrepreneurs bought them. Much before that, they spurred entrepreneurial skills in local Christian converts. One such, Sammuel Santhosh, started a factory in 1890 and his son, Aaron, started Aaron Spinning and Weaving Mills Ltd. at Pappinissery. He introduced new designing. Aaron set up the Kannur Spinning and Weaving Mills by 1944-45. When power looms were bought, the handlooms were sold to the local people.
Trade unions

The local people started their own weaving industry. This system engaged many workers in the textile industry.  Power looms later created new avenues for the industry and resulted in the emergence of an active trade union movement in Kannur. Thus, for 150 years, Kannur became a land of looms and designs.

Title: "Weaving shop and accomodation in Cannanore."
Creator: unknown

Title: "Weaving shop in Cannanore."
Creator: unknown

Title: "Weaving shop and accomodation in Cannanore."
Creator: unknown

Title: "Pulling down the pillars during the demolition work, Cannanore."
Creator: unknown
Title: "The mission house in Cannanore with its three wings - kitchen, stable, and the living accomodatioj of the missionaries."
Creator: unknown
Title: "Weaving factory office in Cannanore."
Creator: unknown

Title: "The building for spinning and reeling in the weaving factory in Cannanore."
Creator: unknown
Title: "'Burnaheri' branch of the Cannanore Weaving Factory."
Creator: unknown
Title: "A weaving hall in Cannanore."
Creator: unknown
Title: "The hall for spinning and reeling in the weaving works in Cannanore."
Creator: unknown

Title: "Cannanore: the tailors' shop."
Creator: unknown
Title: "Cannanore: building where spinning and reeling takes place."
Creator: unknown

Title: "Steam press (for hoisery materials)."
Creator: unknown

Title: "Cannanore: weaving compound. Weaving hall."
Creator: unknown

Title: "Cannanore. Compound of the weaving factory. Upstair / Dying shop / Bandy Shed / kitchen / living accomodation."
Creator: unknown

Title: "Cannanore. The new building of the weaving establishment. Seen from the front."
Creator: unknown

Title: "Cannanore. Living accomodation for the weaving factory."
Creator: unknown

The spread of Jainism to Wayanad

The spread of Jainism to Wayanad

The spread of Jainism to Kerala is from Kamataka and Tamil Nadu. Jainism was a stronghold in Kamataka especially in Sravana Belgola during the reign of Chandragupta. Chandragupta was a great promoter of Jainisrn and sent many missionaries to the different parts. Among them somebody came to Kerala and spread Jainism here. This is considered to be the first Jain migration to Kerala. Another group of Jains migrated to Kerala around the 8th century from Tamil Nadu.

Many relics and studies prove the existence of Jainism in Kerala. The remaining of the Jain temples and the images of Tirthankaras have been found from different parts of Kerala. Though there were a number of Jain temples in the past, many of these temples were converted into Hindu temples.

Chithral, a place in Tamil Nadu, was a part of Kerala decades ago. It is said that the Saraswathi Kshethram in Chithral was a Jain temple till 13th century. The temple is situated on a huge rock near cave. This cave is said to have been used by Jain monks, because on the walls of the cave the Tirthankaras images have been engraved. Apart from that the idols of the 23rd and 24th Tirthankaras are erected in the sanctum sanctorum of the temple. From these facts there is no doubt to assume that Chitharal Saraswathi Kshethram was a Jain temple.

Nagaraja Swami Kshethram, situated in Nagarcovil, was a part of Travancore is said to be a Jain temple. Six Jain idols have been found from this temple. Mahavira's and Parsvanatha's idols are still being kept in the temple. Palakkad was an important jain centre in the past. Chandraprabha Kshethram (Chandrapraha is the 8th Tirthankara) is a Jain temple. The place where the temple is situated is known as 'Jain Medu' presently there is only one Jain family in Palakkad.

Temples converted into Hindu temples

According to Archaeological department, Irinjalakuda Bharataswamy Kshethram is a Jain temple. Now this temple is worshipped by Namboodiries. Bharath was the eldest son of Rishabha Deva, the first Tirthankara of Jains. The Kallil Baghavathy Kshethram at Muvattupuza is a Jain temple, which is also worshipped by Hindus. The idols of Mahavira and Parsva Natha arc seen in these temples.

Apart from these temples many other temples also have been converted into Hindu temples. Jains were one of the civilized groups in Kerala. But in course of time the invasion of Saiva and Vaishnava religions declined the influence of Jains in the community. Many Jain kings were converted into these religions. This is said.to be the reason for the decline of Jainism. In the present. day the main Jain centres in Kerala are: Eranakulam, Calicut and Wayanad. The Jains of Eranakulam and Calicut are belonging to the Svetambara sect and most of them have become successful business men. In Wayanad Jains are mainly farmers and business men. Among these places Wayanad is the most important Jain centre.

Jainism in Wayanad- Bailnad

According to the ancient history of Wayanad Jains are the first group who migrated to Wayanad. The Kannada speaking people in Wayanad are known as Jains, they belong to the Digambara sect and they are called Gowadas. Hoysala kings were the rulers of Kamataka'in the 12th century and Wayanad was a part of Karnataka. At that time Wayanad was known as Bailnad. The rulers of Hoysala Dynasty were Jains till Vishnuvardha. Around the medivial period Saiva religion became a strong hold in Karnataka and the frequent attacks from Salva religion to Jain lead to the migration of Jains to Kerala and especially to Wayanad.



The migrated Jains first came to Panamaram on the banks of Kabani river. From there the Jain groups spread to the different parts of Wayanad. These Jains were basical1y farmers. Digging and ploughing were against their belief. So as to keep their belief they introduced eco-farming in Wayanad. Jainism was in its peak in Wayanad during the days of Hoysala Dynasty. Hoysala kings promoted Jainism and they sent many missionaries to the different parts to spread Jainism. There are many proofs, which justify the existence of Jainism in Wayanad. The history tells us that the Bathery Jain temple was built 800 years ago.

Hennaredu Bedhi


Earlier this temple was known as Kidangad Basti and the older name of Bathery was Hennaredu Bedhi (twelve streets). These two names are Kannada names and it shows the influence of the Kamataka Jains. Some other similar place names are: Bennagode (Venniyode), Palagonthu (Palukunnu), Muthangadi (Puthangadi), and Hosengadi (Mananthavady). All these Kannada names are the fool-proof evidence to justify the existence of Jains in Wayanad.


Edakkal Caves

It is believed that the wall inscriptions in Edakkal Caves (the oldest historical monument in Wayanad) are closely related to Jainism. The Swastik mark, the mark of the seventh Tirthankara, Suparswa Natha, has been engraved on the wall. The Chandrabimbamark, the mark of the eighth Tirthankara, Chandra Natha, also can be seen on the wall of the cave. The other inscriptions on the wall are the Hoysala kings'. The former Hoysalas were Jains.

Influence of the Hindu religion

In the thirteenth century Jainism was in its peak in Wayanad. By the end of eighteenth centuiy the religion became too weak because of the increasing influence of the Hindu religion and the invasion of Saiva - Vaishnava religions. In this period many Jain temples were destroyed and some of them were possessed by Hindus. The relics of these ruined temples can be seen in Bathery, Puthangadi and Poothadi.

Jain population in Wayanad

At present Wayanad is considered to be one of the important Jain centres. According to the latest survey the total Jain population in Wayanad is 1581. Among them 797 are male and 784 are female. In Wayanad the main Jain centers are: Mananthavady, Panamaram, Anjukunnu, Varadoor, Kalpetta and Kaniyambatta.

The Jain Community in Wayanad

The Jain Community in Wayanad has been divided into nine units. In one unit there are nine committee members. Among them seven members are the Directors of the committee and the remaining two members are Chairman and Convener. The nine units are:

a) Anjukunnu Unit : The Anjukunnu Unit consists of thirty-seven families and the total number of members is 147. Among them seventy-four are married. There are seventy-one male and seventy-six female in the unit. Most of the Jains in this area are farmers. Apart from farmers there are teachers and employees.

b). Kalpetta Unit : In Kalpetta unit there are sixty-three families and it has the strength of 249 members 137 are married. The number of male are 131 and female are 118. The noted writer, cultural critic and former Union Minister Mr. M.P. Veerendrakumar, belongs to this unit.

c) Kaniyambatta Unit : The Kaniyambatta unit consists of fifty-two families and the number of members are 236. Among them 126 are married. There are 128 male and 108 female in the unit. The members of Kaniyambatta unit are basically fanners. Some of them doing business and most of the youth are doing their higher studies in different branches.

d) Karinkutty Unit : The total number of families in Karinkutty unit are twenty­nine. The total number of members is 116. Among them fifty-six are male and sixtyare female. Sixty-six members are married.

e) Muttile Unit : There are forty-three families in Muttil unit and it has the strength of 157 members. There are seventy-seven male and eighty female members. Among them eighty members are married.

f) Neervaram Unit : Neervaram unit consists of fifty-eight families and the total number of members is 211. There are 101 male and the remaining 110 are female. The number of married is 102.
g) Poothadl Unit: There are forty-nine families and 163 members in this unit. Among them seventy-two are male and ninety-two are married.

h) Puthlyidam Unit : Puthiyidam Unit consists of thirty-two families and 126 members. There are sixty-seven male and fifty female members. Among them seventy are married.

i) Vennlyode Unit : Venniyode unit comprises forty4hree families and 176 members. Among these members seventy-five are married. There are ninety-four male and eighty-two female.

All these nine units function with a view to uplift the standard of living of the Jains in the community. Most of the Jains are rich enough and have achieved a social status in the society. As far as some other Jains are concerned even now they are in the lower shelves. These Jain units try to occupy a better position and sphere for them.

Jain Temples in Wayanad

1. Sulthan Bathery Jain temple :

This is an ancient Jain temple situated at Sultan Bathery town. It is supposed to have been built around twelfth century A.D. The temple was taken over, by Tippu sultan and used as the Battery for his army. It is now under the possession of Archaeology Department who repaired the temple in 1996. Though this temple surroundings had a large Jain population in ancient times, there are no Jains in this area now. On the pillars and on the walls of the temple are engraved with the images of Tirthankaras. One of the specialities of this temple is that no piece of wood is used for the construction of the temple even the roof of the temple is made of stones. The Wayanad Jain community conducts a Navakhalasha Panchamritha Abhisheka Pooja at this temple on the occasion of Mahaveer Jayanthi every year.

2. Sri Adblswara Swami Temple, Manantbavady : This is temple situated about 1 k.m. from Mananthavady. It is supposed to be centuries old. In 1960 the hereditary custodian Late Shri.D.Padmaja Tharakan handed over the temple to a trust, which was formed with Late Shri. Palukkunnu Chandrayya Gowder as President. The temple was renovated in 1958 and Pancha Kalyana was conducted.

3. Anandapuram Shrl. Adblshwara Swami Temple, Puthlyadam : This temple is situated about eight k.ms from Mananthavady town. It was constructed in 1957 and Pancha Kalyana Prathista Mahotsava was conducted in June of the same year.

4. Shri. Ananthanatha Swamy Temple, Ananthakrlshnapuram : This is one of the main Jain temples of Wayanad. It was situated in a place called Kalpavathy or old Kalpetta. It was originally managed by the Uralan Shri. Payappa Tharakan after whom the management was taken over by Sri. P.C. Mandappa Gowder in 1926, who formed a trust to manage the temple in 1931. This temple, which was dilapidated, was shifted and newly constructed at t place called Ananthakrishna puram and Pancha Kalyana Mahotsava conducted in 1933 under the Leadership of Late Shri. M.K.Subbiah Gowder and then by Late Shri. M. K.Ananthayya Gowder. Presently the temple is situated on the Kalpetta ­ Mananthavady road about five k.ms from Kalpetta town.

5. Shri. Ananthanatha Swamy Kshethram, Varadoor : This Jain temple was originally situated at Arapatha near Echome. It was shifted to Kottavayal, and from there again to its present near Varadoor in. 1964. the temple was constructed under the leadership of late Shri.V. K. Vardhman Gowder. Panchakalyana Mahotsva was conducted in 1977 when the present idol was installed. A copper inscription has been found in this temple. And this inscription reads that, "Lalithappan son of a Kamataka king, came to Wayanad 300 years ago and donated valuable things to all the Jain temples." The temple is run by a trust, formed in 1953 by late V.P. Ananthayya Gowder.

6. Shri. Chandranatha Swamy Temple, Puthanangadi : This is one of the ancient Jain temples of Way an ad. A number of old and dilapidated ruins of other Jain temples are found around this temple. This temple is situated on the Panamaram - Nadayal road about five kilometers from Panamaram town. This place was originally known as Mannikapuram and was supposed to be a centre of trade in gems and pearls. In course of time this name was changed to Muthangadi and now as Puthanangadi. In 1950 a trust was formed to develop this temple under the leadership of late Shri. Ramachandra Gowder of Neervaram who renovated the temple. Later a new idol was installed and Panchakalyan was conducted in 1958 leadership of late Shri.M. V. Jinachandra Gowder.

7. Shri. Parsva Natha Swamy Kshethram, Anjukunnu : This is a newly constructed temple in 1996. The Panchakalyana Prathishta Mahotsva was conducted in the same year. It is situated about three kilometers from the Kalpetta - Mananthavady main road at a place called Anjukunnu.

8. Shri. parsva Natha Swami Kshethram, Palukunnu : This is another oldest Jain temple in Wayanad. The temple is situated at Palukunnu, which is about six kilometers away from Anjukunnu on Mananthavady - Kalpetta main road. It was renovated in 1950 by Kalathingal Krishna Gowder. About three decades back Parsva Natha Swami Kshetra trust was formed. The current President is Shri P.M. Vardhamanan.

9. Shrl. Shanthl Natha Swamy Devaswom, Vennlyode : This is a very old Jain temple of Wayanad. The temple was run and managed by the hereditary 'Uralans'.
a. Thazheveettil Shri. ShanthaIj Tharakan
b. Shri. Brahma Soori Tharakan
c. Shri. M.P.C. Jain
d. Venniyodc Shri. Dcvaraj Tharakan

These 'Uralalns' (hereditary custodians) handed over the temple to a trust consisting of twelve members on May 1955. in 1964 the temple was renovated and Panchakalyan was conducted under the leadership of Late Shri M. K Jinachandran. Earlier to this a Panchakalyana was conducted in 1928 under the leadership of Sargur Shri Chandra Sagara Swmaji. The annual pooja of this temple is conducted on Vaishaga Shuklanavami. The present temple is managed by a trust under the president ship of Shri. MJ. Vijayapadman. The temple is situated about eight kilometers from Kambalakkad town.

10. Chandranatha Girl Kshethram : This temple is situated on top of a single huge rock called Myladipara near Kalpetta. There was a huge idol of Chandranatha Tirthankara, which was worshipped in earlier times. This idol was destroyed by miscreants and only remnants of it remain today. A number of caves are situated behind the rock, which was used by Jain monks in earlier times. A temple renovation committee was formed about three decades ago under the President ship of M. S. Padmiah Gowder and later Shri P.M. Vardhamana took over the President ship. A pooja is conducted dunng March/April every year in which all the community members participate

The Contributions of Jain Community to Wayanad

One of the main contributions of Jainism is that the introduction of eco-friendly cultivation in Wayanad. Jains were against the digging and ploughing of the land. So as to keep their belief they did not plough or dig the land. In the field of irrigation Jains have contributed a lot. Some of the dams and ponds built by Jains still exist in: Cheeral, Kazhampukunnu, Nambiarkunnu, Chulliyode, Kolliyadi, Thaloor, Sultan Bathery, Meenangadi, Panamaram, Anjukunnu and Nadavayal. These ponds and dams were built in the medivial period. The Jains of that time used to store water in these ponds, dams and irrigated the crops. Doddappan Pond, near Sultan Bathery is one of those kinds. These ponds and dams, adjourned to the Jain temples were not only for the exclusive use of the temples but also for the use of men and animals.

Paddy cultivation

Jains were experts in paddy cultivation and they introduced it in Wayanad. Like that the introduction of pepper and Robesta Coffee were the contributions of Jains. Another important contribution of Jains is in field of architecture. Most of the ancient Jain temples are in the Vijayanagara style. The temples have Mukhmandapa, Garbhagriha, Ardhamandapa and Mahamandapa. Sultan Bathery Jain temple is built in the same style. One of the specialities of this temple is that for the construction of the temple no piece of wood has been used, even the roof of the temple is made of stones. The engravings in the Puthanangadi Jain temple deserve a special mention here. Along with the Jain statues, the images of Matsya, Kunna and Varaha images too can be seen on the walls of this temple.

Jains are the first group who started social life in Wayanad. Centuries ago they migrated and started living together. The older name of Sulthan Bathery was 'Hennaredu Bedhi', which means 'twelve streets'. This is a Kannada name and the migrated Jains were from Karnataka. History and the name 'Hennerdu Bedhi' tell us that there were twelve well organized streets and it was the main centre of Jains. Thus Jains paved the way for the social life in Wayanad.

Important Personalities and Their Contributions : Shri.M.K.Jinachandran is considered to be the founding father of modern Wayanad. He was a great visionary and he did many things for the development of Wayanad and its people. He started the first High School in Wayanad, S.K.M.J.High.School, Kalpetta, which is considered to be one of the premier educational institutions in Wayanad. He also established fifteen L.P and U.P, Schools in Wayanad. For the development of the S.C and S.T sections he started a 'Kanyagurukulam'. Late Shri Ragavan Master, former MLA of Wayanad was a student of 'Kanyagurukulam'. The first to introduce telephone in the district is Shri. M K. Jinachrtdran who also introduced post offices here. He started the first petrol pump and vehicle service station.

Shri. Maniamkode Krihshna Gowder,a committed freedom fighter, is another important figure, who has contributed much in the fields of agriculture. He introduced Robesta Coffee in Wayanad; its seeds were brought from Africa. He made every endeavour to bring Gandhiji to Wayanad. As a result of his efforts Gandhiji came to Wyanad on January 14th, 1943. Palukunnu Chandrayya Gowder is another philanthropist, worked for the welfare of the people. He donated land and building for the inception of a Government Hospital in Panamaram. He started the Gandhi Memorial U.P School in Anjukunnu. Presently it is run by Christian management. Sri.V.K. Vardhamana Gowder started co-operative societies and banks in Wayanad. He also donated land for the veterinary hospital in Vardoor. Shri. M.P.Chandranathan, Sri. Vijayapadman, Shri Mandappa Gowder, Koottamunda Subbya Gowder, Shri. M. K. Padmaprabha, Shri M. P. Veerendra Kumar, are the other personalities who dedicated their life for the development of Wayanad. All these personalities donated a lione share of their money and land to uplift the people of Way an ad as well as the growth of Wayanad.

Man Eater of Jowalagiri- a sketch

In this story, Kenneth Anderson describes, how  villagers are affected by fierce thought of a man eating Tiger in South India. Just have a extract of the story.


The first page of the story





The Classic Drawing Of Hosdurg Fort

We found an old drawing in Digital library ,Oxford and it is related to a small and important area of Malabar. Just followed and try to locate the present location of the place depicted in the drawing.

Hosdurg Fort is a fort in Kanhangad which is part of
Kasargod district in Kerala state. Hosdurg Fort with its round bastion looks imposing from a distance. Somashekara Nayaka from the Keladi Nayaka dynasty of Ikkeri built this fort. The place is made well known by the Nithyanandasram with 45 caves.

The Classic Drawing

(Probably before 1850)

Title"Hosadurga. Kasargod. Rest house. Houses of the policemens' servants. Official building. School. Old fort, part of the rest house."
An undated (Probably before 1850) drawing of Hosdurg,Kerala, describing the positions of buildings and...
its relations.
Alternate title:
"[original caption]german- Hosadurga. Kasargod. Reisehaus. Wohnhäuser der Polizeidiener Amtsgebäude. Schulhaus. Altes Fort. Zum Reisehaus gehörig."
Creator: NA
fortification, school, village view, police station, village, government building, rest house, mountain, fort

The Location By Google : Click for larger view

please note the government offices ,school, and old fort at the same place as in the old drawing.


തുളുനാടിന്റെ ഇനിയും അറിയപ്പെടാത്ത ചരിത്ര വാതായനങ്ങളിലേക്ക്‌ വെളിച്ചം വീശുന്ന ചരിത്രസത്യങ്ങള്‍ തരാന്‍ കഴിയുന്ന ഹൊസ്‌ദുര്‍ഗ്ഗ കോട്ട കാലവര്‍ഷത്തില്‍ വീണ്ടും തകര്‍ന്നു. പുരാവസ്‌തു വകുപ്പ്‌ ഏറ്റെടുത്തു സംരക്ഷിക്കുന്ന സംസ്ഥാനത്തെ കോട്ടകളില്‍ ഏറെ പ്രാധാന്യമുള്ളതാണ്‌ ഈ കോട്ട. ചൊവ്വാഴ്‌ച പുലര്‍ച്ചെയുണ്ടായ പേമാരിയിലാണ്‌ ഈയിടെ അറ്റകുറ്റ പണികള്‍ തീര്‍ത്ത്‌ മനോഹരമാക്കിയ കോട്ട തകര്‍ന്നുവീണത്‌. വിനായക ടാക്കീസിന്‌ മുന്നിലുടെ ഹൊസ്‌ദുര്‍ഗ്ഗ്‌ കോടതി സമുച്ചയത്തിലേക്ക്‌ പോവുന്ന പൂങ്കാല്‍കോട്ട റോഡിന്റെ ഭാഗമാണ്‌ തകര്‍ന്നത്‌. ഇതു കാരണം കോടതിയിലെക്കുള്ള ഗതാഗതം ഭാഗികമായി തകരാറിലായിട്ടുണ്ട്‌. സംസ്ഥാന സര്‍ക്കാര്‍ കോട്ടകളുടെ സംരക്ഷണത്തിന്‌ അനുവദിച്ച 4 കോടി രൂപയില്‍ നിന്ന്‌ 35 ലക്ഷം രൂപയാണ്‌ ഹൊസ്‌ദുര്‍ഗ്ഗ്‌ കോട്ട പുതുക്കി പണിയുന്നതിന്‌ ചിലവഴിക്കുന്നത്‌. പുരാവസ്‌തു വകുപ്പ്‌ നേരിട്ടാണ്‌ നവീകരണ പ്രവര്‍ത്തികള്‍ നടത്തുന്നത്‌. ഈ പ്രവര്‍ത്തനങ്ങള്‍ കനത്ത മഴ കാരണം പാതിവഴിയില്‍ നിര്‍ത്തിയിരുക്കുകയാണ്‌. കോട്ട കാത്തു സൂക്ഷിക്കണമമെന്ന്‌ ചരിത്ര ഗവേഷകരും വിദ്യാര്‍ത്ഥികളും ആവശ്യപ്പെടാന്‍ തുടങ്ങിയിട്ട കാലമേറെയായെങ്കിലും അപ്പോഴെക്ക ഒന്നും പറയാതെ ഒഴിഞ്ഞു മാറുകയാണ്‌ പുരാവസ്‌തു വകുപ്പ്‌ ചെയ്‌ത്‌.

Hosdurg Fort is a fort in Kanhangad which is part of Kasargod district in Kerala state. Hosdurg Fort with its round bastion looks imposing from a distance. Somashekara Nayaka from the Keladi Nayaka dynasty of Ikkeri built this fort. The place is made well known by the Nithyanandasram with 45 caves.

One of the Government Office in the  location.

തകര്‍ന്നടിഞ്ഞുകൊണ്ടിരിക്കുന്ന ഹോസ്ദുര്‍ഗ് കോട്ട നവീകരിച്ച് പൂര്‍വ്വസ്ഥിയിലാക്കുന്നതിനുള്ള പ്രവൃത്തികള്‍ ആരംഭിച്ചു. ദേശീയ പുരാവസ്തു സംരക്ഷണ വകുപ്പിന്റെ കീഴിലാണ് കോട്ടയുടെ പുനര്‍ നിര്‍മ്മാണ ജോലികള്‍ ആരംഭിച്ചത്. പതിനെട്ടാം നൂറ്റാണ്ടില്‍ ഇക്കേരി രാജാക്കന്‍മാര്‍ പണിതതാണ് ഹോസ്ദുര്‍ഗ് കോട്ട. ആറേക്കറോളം സ്ഥലവിസ്തൃതിയില്‍ പണിതുയര്‍ത്തിയ കോട്ടയുടെ ഭാഗങ്ങളും ചുറ്റുമതിലും കാലപ്പഴക്കം കൊണ്ടും വിവിധതരം കയ്യേറ്റങ്ങള്‍ കൊണ്ടും ഓരോ ഭാഗങ്ങളും തകരുകയായിരുന്നു. കാഞ്ഞങ്ങാട് ബ്ലോക്ക് ഓഫീസ് കോംപ്ലക്‌സ്, കോടതി സമുച്ചയങ്ങള്‍, പൊതുമരാമത്ത് വകുപ്പ് ഓഫീസുകള്‍, ചേയര്‍ ഹൗസ് കാംപാകൊ, വൈദ്യുതി ബോര്‍ഡ്, വിദ്യാഭ്യാസ ഓഫീസ്, മൃഗാശുപത്രി, പൊലീസ് ക്വാര്‍ട്ടേഴ്‌സുകള്‍ തുടങ്ങിയവയും ഹൊസ്ദുര്‍ഗ് ഗവ.ഹൈസ്‌കൂളിന്റെ ഗ്രൗണ്ട്, ലിറ്റില്‍ ഫഌവര്‍ ഗേള്‍സ് ഹൈസ്‌കൂള്‍ എന്നിവയ്ക്ക് പുറമെ ഏതാനും സ്വകാര്യാശുപത്രികളും വീടുകളും ക്വാര്‍ട്ടേഴ്‌സുകളും എല്ലാം കോട്ടയ്ക്ക് അകത്താണ്. കോട്ട പണിയുമ്പോള്‍ ഇവിടെയുണ്ടായിരുന്നത് പൂങ്കാവ് ശിവക്ഷേത്രം മാത്രമാണ്. ഇത് നേരത്തെ ദേവി ക്ഷേത്രമായിരുന്നുവത്രെ. ശേഷിക്കുന്ന രണ്ടര ഏക്കര്‍ സ്ഥലം മാത്രമാണ് ഇപ്പോള്‍ കോട്ടയ്ക്ക് സ്വന്തമായുള്ളത്. അതിന്റെ നടുവില്‍ തലയെത്തിനില്‍ക്കുന്നതാകട്ടെ ഒരു പൊതുശ്മശാനവും. ഇതടക്കമാണിപ്പോള്‍ പുരാവസ്തുവകുപ്പിന് കൈമാറിയിട്ടുള്ളത്. തകര്‍ന്ന കോട്ടഭാഗങ്ങള്‍ പൂര്‍വ്വസ്ഥിയിലാക്കാന്‍ ലക്ഷകണക്കിന് ചെങ്കല്ലുകള്‍ ആവശ്യമാണ്. ഇതിന് കോടികള്‍ ചിലവ് പ്രതീക്ഷിക്കുന്നു. -